Saturday, June 27, 2020

Surviving Trauma in The Assault - Literature Essay Samples

Trauma survivors often cope by investing their entire energy into silencing and suppressing the harrowing events of the past. One such survivor is Anton Steenwijk, the protagonist of Harry Mulisch’s 1982 novel, The Assault. Especially in the first chapter after the â€Å"incident†, set during the liberation of Amsterdam, Mulisch portrays Anton’s experiences and condition as a trauma survivor. By introducing one of the main conflicts in the novel, furthering the characterization of Anton, and through the use of symbolism, Mulisch illustrates how despite one’s best attempts of suppressing the past, it is embedded in one’s subconscious and cannot be escaped. One of the main conflicts in Mulisch’s novel, is an internal conflict between Anton’s desire to move on with his life and his inability to face his past to achieve closure. This directly relates to the notion that one cannot escape their past unless they are willing to confront it. This chapter is crucial in introducing this conflict since it describes Anton’s development over the years following the â€Å"incident†, in which his family was murdered, his house burned, and everything he knew destroyed. Although Anton believes that the war â€Å"was never really a part of him or ever would be† (Mulisch, 55), he is not able to go on with his usual life because â€Å"[the War] was a part of him so that all in all, he didn’t have much left†Ã¢â‚¬  (56). This indicates that his entire life was now tainted by these atrocious events. To avoid reliving that pain and anguish, he believes that he best attempt to forget the past. However, by doing so he also prevents himself from living a life filled with happiness, ease and hope. For example, Anton prefers â€Å"not [feeling] like [his Aunt and Uncle’s] son† (56) because this may abate creating emotional or deep connections similar to those in his past. Clearly, Anton craves to forget the past and move on since he never even â€Å"bother[ed] to read any of† (57) the publications about the German Occupation. However, this keeps him cemented in his past as he does not confront the events and permits the memories to live in his subconscious. Hence, his recurring nightmares about the â€Å"incident†. This internal conflict between the desire to move on and the refusal to face the past is the reason Anton is miserable for many years and unable to create meaningful connections with others. The introduction of this conflict is vital for the progression of the novel, as it relates to one of the major themes in the novel about the deleterious effects of suppressing one’s past, and justifies many of Anton’s decisions and actions in the future. Additionally, Mulisch illustrates a crucial dynamic change in Anton’s personality, and thus suggests that despite Anton’s desires to escape the past, it continuously affects his life. During the first episode, Anton is portrayed as a curious and joyous boy who played with other children and spent time reflecting and contemplating ordinary scenes that he often encountered. However, after the incident, Anton â€Å"had no desire to know† (57) anything about the war or the fate of his family. This drastic change in his level of curiosity is mainly illustrated through the repetition of Anton’s indifferent attitude towards all information concerning the past. Through indirect characterization, the reader can infer that Anton’s refusal to â€Å"read any of [the published War documents]† (57) and his lack of desire to know â€Å"any [details]† (56) about his family’s death demonstrates the rapid dissipation of his curiosity that was present during his childhood. Moreover, prior to the incident Anton was indirectly characterized as a sensitive boy who did not like being forgotten by his family and who craved the company and affection of others, as shown when he is comforted by Truus in the prison cell. This is in stark contrast to the first chapter of the second episode in which Anton isolates himself from society and does not â€Å"take part† in the activities of other â€Å"boys his age† (55). Moreover, Anton felt like a guest at his aunt’s and uncle’s house and not â€Å"like their son† (56), which indicates a more distant relationship and suggests that he does not wish to get attached to other people. This isolation highlights how the past continues to haunt him despite his efforts to suppress it because he cannot move on with his life. These dynamic characteristics of Anton are vital as they indicate how the past continues to affect his development and character, despite his attempts to separate himself from the agonizing events of his past. In spite of these aspects of his dynamic characterization, some of Anton’s characteristics remain static. Most importantly, his indifference and impartiality towards those involved in the war remains the same. During the incident, the Nazis are presented through Anton’s perspective since it is written in third person limited. In his depiction of the Nazis he rarely uses biased or judgmental diction, but instead simply perceives them as â€Å"soldiers† or â€Å"officers† performing their duties. Anton does not harbor any prejudice against the Nazis and views them as ordinary human beings, while others such as Truus his cellmate refer to them as â€Å"bastards† (37). Anton is able to recognize when they give him a â€Å"friendly nod†(43) and was devastated and â€Å"breathing [] convulsively† (49) when Schulz, an officer accompanying Anton to Amsterdam, died. This indifference and lack of discrimination reappears in the second episode th rough indirect characterization when Anton struggles to determine whether the â€Å"German man with the scar† (57) was compassionate for not killing Anton as the Nazis â€Å"in Poland and Russia† (58) would have, or cruel because he â€Å"execut[ed] the inhabitants† (58) of Anton’s house. Anton’s inability to formulate an opinion regarding the Nazis is an effect of his internal conflict and refusal to process his past. Moreover, this portrays Mulisch’s criticism of people’s predetermined opinions of others and their incapability of perceiving the Nazis as fellow human beings simply executing their jobs in order to get by. Furthermore, Mulisch enforces the notion that the past cannot be escaped through his use of symbolism. Mulisch employs symbolism to open the second episode with a depiction of a â€Å"cloud of ash that rises into [the air] from a volcano [] and continues to rain down [] for years† (55). This prominent image symbolizes how an incident, such as an erupted volcano, creates a chain of events that may persist for years. Describing this through a natural disaster, such as a volcanic eruption, indicates that the repercussions cannot be prevented as it is a natural progression or fate. Likewise, the diction, such as â€Å"volcano†, â€Å"ash†, and â€Å"rain†, contain a negative and pernicious connotation linked to the â€Å"incident† in Anton’s life. The volcanic eruption stands as a symbol for his burnt down house and the murder of his family, and how even though it is unwelcome, this incident will continuously haunt Anton â€Å"for years† ( 55). Similarly, the image of the â€Å"complicated braiding of ripples† left behind by a motorboat crossing the quay in the prologue is a crucial depiction of how the â€Å"incident† affects Anton. Furthermore, the â€Å"brief and random glimpses† (57) of the incident that Anton endures during moments of stillness are symbolic for how the past continues to haunt him. Although Anton believes his â€Å"family had escaped from his memory† (57), they still continue to reappear. The diction Anton uses to describe these moments, such as â€Å"nightmare† and â€Å"hermetic darkness†, convey how desperately he tries to avoid the past. Additionally, the imagery used to describe the dream highlights this chaotic and terrifying moment in time. For instance, the sequence of â€Å"a dark region of cold and hunger and shooting, blood, flames, shouts† (57) creates a sense of urgency and panic, thus portraying Anton’s emotional state at that t ime. This sequence of oppressive diction uses sensory imagery to address the reader’s sense of sight, feel, and sound, suggesting how vivid these memories are in Anton’s mind. Essentially, these flashes of memories from the past symbolize how despite his efforts to suppress it, they continue to reappear. These symbols are imperative in order for Mulisch to portray the permanent effect of the past on Anton’s life. Mulisch exposes how one’s past is inescapable and ingrained in one’s mind, despite all attempts to suppress and expunge it. The use of symbolism, characterization and internal conflict clarify this notion. Throughout the novel, Anton continuously runs into his past and is eventually forced to face the horrifying incident which ultimately liberates him from his past and allows him to move on with his life. Mulisch instills the idea that even though the world was liberated from German occupation and the torture was physically over, the torture did not cease to exist in the minds of the victims. Thus, Anton represents a society of millions of individuals who were lucky enough to survive the war, but suffered such huge losses, so that they were incapable of moving on from their past.

Monday, June 8, 2020

Should The United States Promote Free Speech Abroad - 550 Words

Should The United States Promote Free Speech Abroad? (Essay Sample) Content: Students NameInstructors NameCourse NameDate of SubmissionFreedom of SpeechFor many years free speech has been a topic which has been discussed widely due to the impact that it has on countries. Democracy established in many nations has provided safety and rights. Freedom of speech is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed in many constitutions of democratic countries. It is the right to express opinions, communicate or write and publish. However, in many countries including democracies have controlled or denied citizens off these privileges. The main reason for this restriction of free speech has been the argument that unlimited freedom of speech can be harmful than helpful. Freedom of expression has had more positive impact than negative especially when it is objectively used. The United States of America being a country built on fundamental rights such as freedom of speech and in the interest of safeguarding its interest should, therefore, promote freedom of e xpression abroad.One of the reasons that that United States should support free speech is that free speech will help to keep governments in check. Freedom of expression enables people to speak out especially when things are going wrong. James Madison, the America founding father, talked about the right of Citizens having the ability to examine public characters which are done by people speaking out about how they are governed. Famine has never occurred in a fully functioning democracy which allows free speech since people I power are held accountable by their people (Sen 18). The flow of information from people to their rulers makes sure that those in authority are held responsible and hence leads to better governance.It is also important to promote free speech since it leads to individuals being able to realize their full capacity. When people are prevented from exercising freedom of expression, they are not able to fully be themselves. Ability to express ourselves is one of the t hings that differentiates human from animals and computers. Free speech facilitates generation of ideas from individuals who could have otherwise shied away from presenting such ideas in a system that doesn't encourage free speech (Lynn-Jones 128).Freedom of speech is also important in society since it helps people to live with diversity and harmony. Progress in the human race is best done not by the suppression or absence of disputes but by dealing with them in a creative, civilized and peaceful way (Kant et al. 56). Freedom of speech tests our resolve to live in a society that we can tolerant of each other's ideas. If we live in a system which gags free speech, the community would be bovine and stagnant. In the case of disagreements, it will not automatically lead to blows since people will respect other people's opinions and at best they will agree on how they disagree...

Monday, May 18, 2020

Personal Statement On Learning Theory - 806 Words

Learning Theory There is nothing like working hard and being rewarded for it, my father would say to me every day before I left for work to my first job. I was a Ticketing Cashier at a popular tourist attraction where hundreds of thousands would attend every year. This was my first opportunity to earn my own pay check, so I valued every dollar and cent. The highlight of my position was having the opportunity to meet new people from all over the world, and earn incentives for the upselling of tickets and exceeding customer standards. Starting out as a new employee I was nervous, but witnessing my fellow coworkers speak to guests and sell the park special offers with ease gave me hope. Often times I found myself observing and asking a million questions to ensure that I was doing my job properly. I wanted to get a raving review from guests and upsell daily park tickets for compensation just like my fellow coworkers did day by day; they, made the job look easy. Social Learning There are three theories that can be offered to explain the process by which we acquire patterns of behavior. This discussion board thread will discuss one – social learning. As defined by Robbins Judge, social learning can be best described as the view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience. Taking a closer look into the theory, individuals learn socially by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something as well as through direct experiences.Show MoreRelatedRelationship Between Helper And Helper Essay1327 Words   |  6 Pagesare alone. Firstly, the thought is about helping process theory and as a guide, which necessitate frequent question that is always asked; â€Å"Why does a particular method or strategy work or not work? This is known as mental theorizing that denotes rational rather than a feeling function. Helper requires a guiding theory to assist to make sense of complex helping process. It is believed that helper can help others without a thought about theory, but if it means working systematically in helping processRead MoreUnit 502 Task A1145 Words   |  5 Pagesanalyse some of the theories, principles and models in education and training. I will report on how these can be applied, and how they can enable inclusive learning, through exploring my own research. The report will also show how learners preferences should be taken into account as per of inclusive teaching and learning. A – Analyse theories, principles and models of learning and models of learning preferences Wilson, L (2014) has shown that there are three main schools of theory: The BehaviouristRead MoreI Was Accepted Into The Royal Roads Mapc Program1084 Words   |  5 Pagesongoing growth and professional learning has been a focus throughout my career, this program seemed a natural extension of my endless drive to be better. And gosh darn it, I really want it. I want to learn new ways of thinking, I want to bring that learning to my career and I want to open up new personal and professional opportunities. My theory about theory requires practice I knew from the outset what my personal challenges would be on this journey. The prevalence of theory in this program was a significantRead MorePersonal Practical Theory ( Ppt ) Guidelines / Expectations997 Words   |  4 PagesPersonal Practical Theory (PPT) Guidelines/Expectations: This exercise is designed to determine your own Personal Practical Theories (PPTs). Please, complete all of the exercises in this activity with a great deal of thoughtfulness and honesty. This activity is to assist you in reflecting on your beliefs. First, write three to five statements that adequately explain your beliefs with respect to (each): The learner The learner is the one who makes teachers become better at what they do. TeachersRead MoreWhat It Take to Be a Scholarly Writier Essay examples935 Words   |  4 Pagesit having a purpose and having an audience like any other writings, scholarly writing is evidence-based (Laureate Education, 2012). It is important, since the scholar-practitioner write for a specific audience, that his or her material be free of personal opinion, assumption, and bias. When writing a scholarly material, a scholar-practitioner has to be objective in tone, write clearly, concise, produce a mechanically correct writing that contains evidence-based material. Before starting writingRead MoreThe Field Of Nonprofit Management810 Words   |  4 Pagesmanagement programs have a theoretical component, and most programs rely on experiential learning as a vital element of a graduate student’s education. Future studies of community impact should include analysis components from the fields of nonprofit management education, service learning, capacity building, and nonprofit evaluation, and take into consideration specific factors that may affect study outcomes. OPENING STATEMENT Nonprofit management education scholars are asking the question, â€Å"How do we measureRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Education997 Words   |  4 Pages Philosophy of Education Discovering the place where personal values and expertise meet organizational values and needs offers a dynamic partnership opportunity. Mutual achievement of organizational academic quality and professional fulfillment provides a positive learning environment. Developing a personal philosophy of education enables an educator to understand and communicate the underlying basis for his or her approach to education. Sharing this philosophy provides valuable information forRead MoreMy Personal Theory As A Self Based Learning1622 Words   |  7 Pageseveryday? Why we must be educated? Why we are learning? The answers are clearly understandable because everyone has his/her own particular reason. One person would like to get a job; one would like to come up with something new; another would like to invent something that has not existed before. Simply, no one can accept being without a job or an education. I would introduce my personal theory as a Self-Based-Learning (SBL), which is a peda gogical learning theory that occurs personally by someone who isRead MoreSupport Diversity Within The School1679 Words   |  7 PagesIt strives to build a community that values, celebrates and responds to diversity (Brisbane Catholic Education, 2015). Catholic schools cater for students who have a diverse range of personal characteristics and experiences. These characteristics and experience include various physical, religious, cultural, personal health or wellbeing, intellectual, psychological, socio-economic or life experiences (Queensland Catholic Education Commission, ______). This diversity provides an opportunity to embellishRead MoreDichotomy Between Theory and Practice in Education1173 Words   |  5 PagesThe interaction between â€Å"theory† and â€Å"practice† in education is a dichotomy that people have been trying to understand for over 2,000 years. The relationship between theorists and practitioners is very complicated because there are issues that s urround the pace of change in theory and practice. The debates that have occurred continue to occur through today in an array of perspectives about the purpose of education and about how to encourage learning. Practical knowledge can be defined as knowledge

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Should Marijuana Be Legal For Medical Purposes - 2106 Words

Some call it ganja, some call it pot, and some call it marijuana. Some smoke ganja to get high and fly , some smoke pot to be stoners, but then they are the people who smoke marijuana to medicate. Legalizing marijuana has been a big controversy for a while. But in 1996 and 2004 California took two steps forward for legalizing marijuana. The first was prop 215 making possessing and cultivating pot legal for medical purposes. The second was an extension on prop 215 which is SB 420 allowing dispensaries or collectives to be open for the distribution of medical marijuana for patients only. To be a patient you have to poses a medical card. Dispensaries have been opening around California since 2004 and still are in the process of opening, but recently dispensaries have been getting shut down. They have been getting shut down due to random raids and no zoning laws. Medical marijuana is a medication for many with severe illnesses or pain. By shutting down dispensaries not only are you takin g away access of medication to patients you are taking away jobs.The raids and no zoning laws for dispensaries are unjust not only for the collective owners but also for the patients. In 1996 the first law for legalizing weed was in effect. Proposition 215 also known as the California Compassionate Use Act. This proposition allows patients to posses and cultivate marijuana. for their medical reasons. They were allowed to do so after being recommended and approved by a California licensedShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legal For Medical Purposes?1796 Words   |  8 PagesMarijuana has shown itself and its derivatives to be profoundly successful in treating a multitude of diseases, their symptoms or side effects of their treatments. Marijuana should be reclassified from Schedule 1 agent and more studies done into the other possible medical uses for this drug. Opposition to the idea of making medical marijuana legal argue that the drug is dangerous. It can’t be more dangerous than the opioids and other more dangerous drugs already available by prescription. In statesRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legal?1060 Words   |  5 PagesMedical Marijuana Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United Sstates (Wagner).. Marijuana is commonly used becauseThis it is because marijuana is easy to get and doesn’t have the visibly dangerous effects that other drugs like cocaine and heroine have. However,But does that mean marijuana is harmless to the human body? There are some people and studies that believe it is harmlessso. Sanjay Gupta, MD, Chief Medical Correspondent for CNN, wrote the following: â€Å"Frequent marijuanaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?972 Words   |  4 PagesMarijuana Legalization For thousands of years, marijuana has been used for a myriad of purposes ranging from medical use to recreational use. Although small steps are being for marijuana legalization across the country, there is still a long way to go. Some folks argue that marijuana is a gateway drug and impairs judgement, causing people to act recklessly. However, extensive studies have been conducted on the effects, risks, and benefits of marijuana, and have proven marijuana to be safer thanRead MoreSupport Marijuana Legalization Now! Essay1676 Words   |  7 Pagescoming, he becomes a self-destructive boy by banging his head and body against the wall causing bruising. However, since after treatment with marijuana (also called cannabis), Alexs illness was significantly improved. His parents curb his seizures by giving him a liquid form of marijuana by mouth 3 times a week. For Alexs family, the benefits of marijuana are greater than the risks. For us, the long-term side effects that are unknown for something that cant kill him are a lot better than the long-termRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana Essay731 Words   |  3 Pages Legalizing marijuana has been an ongoing discussion in the united states for many years. Many people think there is no good way to use, while other people believe it could be a helpful medical treatment. Recreational use is what makes this drug a problem. Many people use this drug for non-medical purposes causing it to become a cash crop drug. Marijuana should be legal for medical purposes only. If it was made legal for medical purposes it could help many people who have diseases that can be curedRead MoreWhos in Charge of the Store? Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesWho should be regulating medical marijuana? Majority leader of the California State Assembly, Alberto Torrico asserts that marijuana, used for medicinal purposes, should be legal and regulated to ensure safe, pesticide free, organic cannabis. However, Torrico maintains non-medical marijuana should remain illegal for all California citizens who do not have a physician diagnosed medical need, such as AIDS or cancer. He contents that advancing the cause of legalizing marijuana to provide additionalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legal?1453 Words   |  6 PagesMarijuana is arguably the most controversial drug in history. In general, when someone hears the word â€Å"drugs† they think of a terrible substance that will destroy the human body. However bringing up marijuana, many people think of different things. Some think of a degenerate hippie, but many Americans simply do not know what to think, and bringing up the legalization of the substance is even more controversial. There is a large group of people that believe the legalization of marijuana is pointlessRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?876 Words   |  4 Pagesare capable of pursuing criminal charges for marijuana possession, however there is a lack of consensus with regard to the legal status of marijua na in Canada. Where the superior and appellate courts in Ontario have declared marijuana laws to be of no force and/or effect and public opinion polls have found an increasing majority of agreement in that marijuana use should not be a criminal offence, Justin Trudeau announced that the possession of marijuana for recreational and medicinal use would beRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?897 Words   |  4 Pages A very well-known topic in today s society is marijuana also known as cannabis or weed. As a matter of fact, the big question today that many people tend to disagree on is whether or not marijuana should be legalized? Recently, all eyes have been focused on Colorado due to the fact that they became the first state in the U.S to officially pass an amendment legalizing the consumption and use of marijuana. Marijuana can be classified as a depressant and a hallucinogen. This drug has beenRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?997 Words   |  4 PagesLegalize It: The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Should marijuana be legalized? Many Americans have been asked this question or have heard some type of news about the issue. Marijuana is commonly known as cannabis which refers to the dried up hemp plant cannabis sativa, even though marijuana is a plant and has no chemical additives it has been a tropic of controversy for many years but nowadays it is in the spotlight more than ever. For centuries, marijuana has been used by people throughout the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Moral, Social, And Ethical Implications Of Cloning

Moral, Social, and Ethical Implications of Cloning â€Å"Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally—identical twins are just one of many examples. Or they can be made in the lab. Natural identical twins are similar to and different from clones made through modern cloning technologies.† (Genetic Science Learning Center) Cloning has many different aspects; there is the moral, social and ethical aspects of cloning. Along with this you have to consider who is being cloned. There is cloning for a human being, animal, or even food. Depending on what is being cloned is what determines if it is allowed or not. Throughout this paper I will discuss many of the aspects of cloning. â€Å"Many people first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Artificial cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though. There are two ways to make an exact genetic copy of an organism in a lab: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer.† (Genetic Science Learning Center) This type of cloning has to do with organisms; so either human or animal. These techniques are done to produce twins. Though the techniques vary, they both are done to receive the same result. The type of cloning used to create Dolly the Sheep is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, also known as nuclear transfer or therapeutic cloning. â€Å"What makes dolly so special is that she was an exact geneticShow MoreRelatedEssay The Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research1409 Words   |  6 Pagesto better the lives of those living, but at what cost? In their articles â€Å"Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of Pro and Con,† by author Dan W. Brock; â€Å"The Ethical Implications of Guman Cloning,† by Michael J. Sandel; â€Å"Theriputic Human Cloning Is Ethical,† by Ian Wilmut and Roger Highfield; and various other articles, each author discusses his or her view on the morality of stem cell research and its use for human cloning. Kantian deontology is defined as treating the individual as more than a meansRead MoreGenetic Engineering : Medical Perfection Or Playing God1280 Words   |  6 PagesThesis Statement â€Å"Genetic engineering differs from cloning in key ways. Whereas cloning produces genetically exact copies of organisms, genetic engineering refers to processes in which scientists manipulate genes to create purposefully different versions of organisms—and, in some cases, entirely new living things†, duplication of genetic cells is known as human cloning. Development of genetic engineering biotechnologies undermines the natural autonomy of life. Does genetic engineering interfereRead MoreGenetically Modified Animals : Genetic Engineering1518 Words   |  7 PagesGenetically Modified Animals Introduction In this research paper on gene technology I hope to share some understanding in the process of gene transfer in animals, the process of obtaining genetically engineered animals, and analyze the social and moral implications associated with this gene technology in animals. Genetic modification of animals started thirty years ago with the production of genetically modified mice. Gene modification is the process of crossing and selective breeding of animals andRead MoreHuman Cloning Debate: The Fate of Frankenstein1671 Words   |  7 Pagesrestricted moral boundaries to those of the Victorians, likely see Victors main crime within the novel more the perverse way in which the creation is carried out and more importantly Victors failure to nurture the offspring; his crime is against the traditional framework of the family (Feldman and Scott-Kilvert, 1987). Position Statement- At the very essence of the Frankenstein myth is the idea that humans have the technology and wisdom to create or duplicate life. This idea, cloning, is neitherRead MoreWhat Are the Ethical Issues of Human Cloning1463 Words   |  6 Pagesregarding the issue of human cloning in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia which have made attempts or have done research in reproductive cloning. Countries like Australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. (NHMRC, 2007) Advocates who involve congress members, editorial writers, fertility specialists...and so on gave benefits of human cloning, yet not enough to justify the moral and ethical issues underlying the controversy. Human cloning refers to the creation ofRead MoreThe Ethical Implications Of Science And Technology1147 Words   |  5 Pagesthe ethical concerns about its potential uses and terror of what might come next: human cloning. As reported in the article, â€Å"Clinton Bars F ederal Funds for Human Cloning Research† by CNN, in 1997, President Clinton stopped all federal funding for cloning. â€Å"Clinton also called on privately funded researchers to voluntarily implement a temporary moratorium on human cloning research ‘until our bioethics advisory committee and our entire nation has had time to... debate the ethical implications’† (CNN)Read MoreThe List Of Pros And Cons Of Human Cloning1624 Words   |  7 Pageslist of Pros and cons of human cloning Summary: The necessary technology has been created, as evident in the story of Dolly the sheep. People still pose questions such as the role of God in Society. Here is a list of pros of human cloning : It could eliminate defective genes , It is considered as the logical next step in the reproductive technology, It could aid in faster recoveries from injuries, it gives a new meaning to genetic modification. As all things human cloning also has cons. Here is a shortRead MoreEssay on The Dilemma of Cloning1522 Words   |  7 PagesThe Dilemma of Cloning      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Man is quickly approaching the reality of cloning a human being. Once regarded as a fantastic vision dreamed up by imaginative novelists, the possibility of creating a person in the absence of sexual intercourse has crossed over the boundaries of science fiction and into our lives. While genetic engineering has helped improve the quality of life for many people, it poses many ethical and moral questions that few are prepared to answer. The most current andRead MoreEthical Decision Making : The Sad Formula, And Nash s 12 Questions1205 Words   |  5 Pagesis important to not only reflect how we make ethical decisions to better understand our personal approach, but also incorporate a systematic approach that fits our code of ethics and guide us in solving ethical conundrums. Specific actionable steps should be taken and incorporated into our ethical decision making. Four psychological sub-processes affecting our ethical action include (a) moral sensitivity, (b) moral judgment, (c) moral focus, and (d) moral character. The following paper will addressRead MoreIs Cloning Be A Debate Of Morals And Human Privileges?1477 Words   |  6 PagesHuman cloning is unethical since it steps back from human identity. In addition, it brings emotional mental damage for the cloned kid and absolutely discards the basic biological gene selection. For the most part, not a single person can manage to ignore the procedure that is made i n science today. Whereas scientific research, for instance grants us information and the procedure of being able to clone human beings, which is something nobody ever assumed could be possible. After watching the movie

Syllabus Designing - Review of Literature - 5836 Words

REVIEW OF LITERATURE An essential step in any research project is the literature review. The function of the literature review is to provide background information on the research question, and to identify what others have said and/or discovered about the question. It may well be that in the course of carrying out the literature review, you come across a study which answers the very question you are proposing to investigate. The literature review, if carried out systematically, will acquaint the researcher with previous work in the field, and it should also alert you to problems and potential pitfalls in the chosen area. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is often underestimated because of teachers attitudes which are often†¦show more content†¦Moreover, Robinson (1991) argues that the language produced as a feature of ESP should be good enough for the job and not be necessarily native-speaker like, but be the communicative strategies and effectiveness of the non-native professional users of English. History of ESP According to Johns’ (1991) discussion, the ESP history in brief with respect to its development and expansion throughout the world has been influenced by the major theoretical and applied schools of linguistics and developed into four phases. The first phase (the 1960s and the early 1970s) was the structure-based phase of linguistic (i.e. lexical and grammatical) features of academic and professional registers, for example, the language of electrical engineering and the language of law (e.g. Herbert, 1965). 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Hospitality and Gastronomy

Question: Discuss about theHospitality and Gastronomy. Answer: Introduction: India has always been one of the favourite destinations for the tourist because of its diverse culture, natural heritage and Indian cuisine which has unique flavours. Each dish in Indian cuisine is made using different spices and flavours. With the economic growth and the increase in the number of high- income group people there has been an increase in the hospitality business in India. To remain in this competitive world and for long- term survival, diversification and innovation in the catering services are very important. Hospitality consists of offering beverages, food and lodging while the person is away from his house. Gastronomy means the guidance and advice relating to what, when and where to drink and eat and which manner and combinations (Ali, 2000). It is the possession of skills and knowledge relating to drink and food and the choice which should be made so as to increase the enjoyment and pleasure of drinking and eating. These pleasures form the centre of gastronomic tou rism which helps in experiencing the pleasures offered by a different culture. Gastronomy is a science or art related to good eating. It refers to the enjoyment of good beverages and good food in good company (Allport, 2007). It is an indisciplinary activity where food forms the centre point while studying the different cultural components. It is an art which is related to the science of the digestive system of the people. The word gastronomy was derived from an ancient Greek work gaster meaning stomach and nomos which means law or knowledge. It can be defined as presentation, reflexive cooking, preparation and eating of the food. Gastronomy is a trans- disciplinary perspective that complements the various perspectives on culture and food, society and food and marketing and food and does not replace them. It is an answer towards the urgent requirement to understand the efficiencies, inadequacies and improvement in the gastronomic life of the society. This report describes the hospit ality industry in India and the concept of Gastronomy. A critical analysis on hospitality, its impact on future development and the problems faced by the industry are also discussed in this report. Literature Review Hospitality refers towards understanding the requirements of the guest. It is the knowledge of knowing what will be appropriate for the guest and how to offer it to the guest (Rakshit Ramalingam, 2010). Successful hospitality cannot be only measured in profit terms (Kuthiala, 2001). For successful hospitality, the host must develop the knowledge about the traditions, culture and history of the drinks and food which they make available to the guest .Hospitality means the complete experience and not only the money value and quality of accommodation and food (Chand, 2015). Managing the hospitality services and the industrial provision can be focused properly by having a border understanding about hospitality and the acts of hospitableness (Scarpato, 2002).. To enhance such experience relevant knowledge is required therefore hospitality training and education must include gastronomy component to enhance the knowledge and history about drinks and food. The characteristics of the hospital ity industry includes the following components: relationship building, product-service mix, two-way communication, labor intensive and diversity in culture (Brotherton Wood, 2008).When a customer dines in a restaurant he not only pays for the food but the services that are provided by the host. The way the services are delivered and the qualities of the staff play a more important role in enhancing the experience of the customers than the tangible product (Manaktola Jauhari, 2007). Hospitality means building the relationships which are long term helps in generating stable revenue and goodwill and brand name among the customers (Manaktola Jauhari, 2007). For developing brand name and loyalty various methods are applied to for example membership programmes which mean giving incentives and privileges to the frequent customers. The organisation in hospitality business interacts with customers of different religion, culture and background (Kuthiala, 2001). When the host interacts with the customers properly, than only they can have a better understanding of the requirements of the guest and provide services as per their expectation and for the full satisfaction of the customers(Maberly Reid ,2014).From going towards the organic food and to the old ancient grains, from tapas to going to molecular gastronomy, from spiced beverages to inclination towards edible flowers and by exploring all the regional cuisine which were unexplored, in the recent time the food and the beverages were a mixture of the new and the old (Nandy,2004). What was considered old are now considered as the latest new. Going organic is a major trend that is been followed these days. Hotels are serving foods which are organic and chemical free. Deconstruction of the food creates a dimension which is new to the procedure of creating and dining (Hing, McCabe, Lewis Leiper 1998). Deconstructing the food helps the customers to experience the new food which in turn satisfies their requirement. Molec ular Gastronomy came into India in the year 1999(Kuthiala, 2001). This technique created a new wave in the food industry. The whole world was surprised by the unique representation and the favour marriage of the Indian food. And lead to a trend to master the technique among the food business. These concepts of molecular gastronomy and other technique gave a new dimension in a way the Indian dish were presented and made the experience of dining more pleasurable (Nandy,2004). The new concept which is progressive Indian Cuisine is born and the Indian kitchen became like labs. The restaurants started focusing on the high-quality experience of dining by providing international standards dining experience. It is believed by many chefs that by showcasing the unexplored Indian cuisine and by using modern techniques and preserving the ancient Indian tradition will make the biggest trend in the coming years. The Indian cuisine which was lesser known have growth big in the recent time and even the five- star restaurant are serving the old Indian cuisine (Jain, Rakhi Bagler, 2015). The cuisine which was lesser known is becoming the latest trend in the F B World. The sliders have changed to personalized plating and the bite- sized food has become a big trend. The ingredients which are locally produced are used in the cooking. Simple flavours are taking the place of complex dishes. These trends are gaining popularity not only because of the refreshing experience but also because of its health factors. Now the diners try to provide food in which the guest can indulge guilt-free. This trend gave rise to super foods which include beetroots and all the ugly looking vegetables like yam and elephant root have become the talk of the town. The diners are exploring the cuisine which has fewer carbohydrates and more protein. India has a very special place in hospitality in the international world. India is a very diverse country in the whole world. The restaurants are now serving t he Indian classical dishes by using the elements and technology of molecular gastronomy which enhances the experience of dining for the guest and adds an element of surprise on the plate. Using the new technique helps to preserve the old ancient cuisine of Indian to a new level which helps in enhancing its flavour and preserving the old traditions (Kivela Crotts,2006). The hospitality industry of India is considered to be among the finest in the world since a long- time and it has not changed till now. The travel and tourism industry of India contributes 8.6% in 2010 towards the GDP which is estimated to increase to 9% till 2020. The demand of this industry is expected to grow in the coming years by 8.2%. With the growth of travel sector, the industry of hospitality is growing faster both in terms of revenue and employment. In the year 2000, India has 2.7 million visitors from around the world which have increased to 5.14 million in the year 2009 (Bharwani Butt,2012).. Although wh en compared with other Asian countries it is less but India has the potential to develop its tourism in the recent years. Indian has a great tradition which accommodates people of all the different origins, lifestyle, religion and habits. The philosophy of Indian culture is based on Atithi Devo Bhava", which treat guest as a god. Critical Analysis Of Hospitality Industry in India Earlier people use to dine only on a special occasion which has changed now to dining 5-6 times during a week. This trend is more popular in the metros. With the change in time, the focus towards cuisine has also been evolving. During the period of 70s and 80s the main focus was on serving traditional Indian food without much importance being given to the presentation and the whole dining experience. Earlier the main focus was on Punjabi and north Indian food which represented the culinary history of India but now the restaurateurs and the chefs are taking extra efforts to show the culinary strength of the Indian food from all the regions of India(Bharwani Mathews, 2012).. They take extra efforts to retain the traditional roots of the food and represent them with the modern style and influence. One of the recent reports by a world tourism organisation says that tourist spends one- third of its expenditure on tourism on food which means that the important of the cuisine of the partic ular destination is growing. The days when a tourist visited the place for its nature and tourist attraction have now taken a back place and tourist now visits a new place to taste the local food of that place. They visit the old traditional restaurants to enjoy the real food and flavours on their plate. This trend has grown in recent time because of the social groups which encourage the people to visit new places only to taste the food they serve. The places in India like Kashmir, coorg and north- east are now explored by the people more for the food they serve than that for their natural beauty(Kivela Crotts,2006).. In the coming year, this trend is going to increase even more with people being more interested to explore the new food and experience being a part of new culture. Indian food is prepared in various styles which depend on where it is being prepared like east, west, north or south. Traditionally Indian food was eaten by sitting on the floor and by using hands which are slowly losing popularity because of western influence. There are various issues that the Tourism and hospitality need to face which include education and training, Management and organisation, food and product innovation, marketing, current trends etc. (Bharwani Mathews, 2012).Indian foods are now served with a hint of modern touch. Restaurants now serve the food which showcases the strength from all the geographical areas of the country. But the problem that is faced and seen in last 70-80 years is that most of the restaurant serves the food of North India and it does not showcase the culinary landscape that India can offer. Despite Indian food has a global presence than also the cuisine lacks standardisation, authenticity and a sense of elegance. From more than a decade the same dishes are made available weather in small roadside shops or five- star restaurants which make it boring. It had not experience innovation (Jauhari, 2012). The dishes are served in a huge portion and more focus is given on the quantity and not on the presentat ion and the quality. The challenges and the environment of India as compared to the west are very different. Due to the difference in beliefs and culture sometimes misunderstanding and conflicts occur. The hospitality industry is service- oriented industry and therefore it requires huge labor supply in order to cater the requirements of the customers and make their experience memorable (Navarro, Serrano, Lasa, Luis Aduriz, Ayo, 2012).The main problem that the hospitality industry faces is the shortage of skilled labour. Retaining skill and qualified labour is the major problem. The wages and salaries paid to the employees are not that attractive as given to the employees of other sectors. This industry has not earned the reputation to be chosen as a career by the people. Proper training are not being made available to the employees so that they can develop their skills. The construction cost and all the other cost of equipment, furnitures and fixtures keep on rising which affect th e budgeting and renovation activities of the present restaurants. There is lack of awareness among the people of this industry which in turn affect their efficiency. The changes in the travel trends and the ever- changing technology severely affect the growth and profit earning capacity of this industry. Capital helps in providing asset liquidity and helps in the development of more new hotels. It becomes difficult for this industry to sustain profit because of the increase in the operating cost, rise in the cost of capital, increase in the labor cost and energy cost.This industry is facing a severe shortage of well-equipped and skilled managers and labors who could cater with this ever changing scenario. Institutional investment increases the asset value but it decreases or lower the return earned from them. The tourism and hospitality industry is undergoing various changes and is evolving slowly. The practices followed in the past are advancing through the development of skills and knowledge acquired to create innovations in different ways. But in recent times the restaurateurs and the chefs are becoming conscious and moving towards modern approach so as to innovate the old Indian dishes and make the experience of Indian food worthwhile around the globe. To solve these problems the staff should be open minded.Gastronomy must develop its own universities, academicians so that it can take its own place among all other science. Alternative Hospitality Paradigms With the changes in the business trend and growth of the hospitality business, a new operational model is used which consist of 3 paradigms and mix of 4es (emotion, engagement, exclusivity and experience) and has replaced the 4es of marketing (price, product, placement and promotion).In the new model, it is believed that customers are human and their hope and aspiration should not be neglected. In this new model online situation and brand management plays a very significant role. Innovative technology is used now a day. As the society has become more concern about the environment issues and has become more emotional therefore the industry now focus on the emotions of the client than the promotions (KesimoÄÅ ¸lu, 2015).The use of energy saving mechanism are used and alternative ways of financing are used to become self-sufficient. Green technologies are used which are cost efficient. Social networking sites are used for the marketing which saves the cost which was earlier spendin g on the marketing strategy by the hospitality business. It also helps to keep a track on the activities of the competitors. Social networks are widely used by the customers to know the goodwill of a particular brand and after reading the reviews of other people they visit the hotel. It has become one of the cheapest sources to gain knowledge about the restaurant and the latest trends. Working in the hospitality business has many pros and cons.There is a large variety of choices in the hospitality industry because of its booming development. Many new restaurants are hotels are opening to cater to the requirement of the locals and the visitors which helps in facilitating huge demand for the labor. Jobs range from the back of the house to front of the house positions. This industry provides long term career development to the employees (Kivela Crotts, 2009). They enjoy many fringe benefits apart from the basic salary, insurance coverage and annual bonus. The hotel market in India was dominated by the leading hotel chains like Taj, Oberoi, ITC and only very few international brands. But slowly the international brands are expanding. Till now 50 international brand hotel chains entered the marketplace of India. With the entrance of international brand, there is more competition and professionalism in the hotel industry has also grown. Conclusion The search on new hospitality, which is free from the narrowness of all the commercially foods/drink/ accommodation comes under gastronomy studies. Gastronomy and Hospitality studies have struggled a lot apart from becoming an independent academic study. Hospitality relates to the drinking and eating activities of the customers and the relation of the host with the society.Everyone has different ways to describe the hospitality. Some define the industry and its features have both intangible and tangible features in its service delivery procedure while others define the industry by exploring the shareholders involves and benefits generated from the industry. Basically, it is the act of welcoming the guest and taking care of the basic needs of the guests relating to their drink, food and accommodation. It is a relationship process between the guest and the host. Working in this field can be challenging. It is unique in nature compared to other sectors because it is service oriented. Ga stronomy studies provide hospitality with the needed cultural, historical and social capital. Gastronomy studies help in providing teaching and research in the commercial hospitality business. It is the time that both the gastronomy and hospitality business begin working with each other so that the expectations of both are fulfilled. Gastronomy studies are about finding new methods about all the gastronomic activities in which the place of hospitality is very important. It helps to place the food in the heart of the customers. The main aim of Gastronomy is to provide the customers with the best nourishment possible. It provides advice and guidance by following certain principles to all the people who are interested in preparing food. In this age of modern society, guidance could be provided by academics. Gastronomy must develop its own universities, academicians so that it can take its own place among all other science. It gives the guest the experience of being a part of a differen t culture and in relating with the people of the different culture. It provides meals based on the local tradition. It is not being confined towards the economic definition but the educational curriculum and research agenda according to the new theoretical framework. References Ali, D. (2000). 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